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(i) Traffic congestion: One of the most common issues that can hinder road transportation is traffic congestion, which occurs when there are more vehicles trying to use the road than it can accommodate.
(ii) Poor road infrastructure: Road infrastructure that is in poor condition, such as potholes or narrow lanes, can also hinder transportation by slowing down vehicles or making them more prone to accidents.
(iii) Limited accessibility: Some areas may have limited road access, either due to a lack of roads or due to geographic barriers such as mountains or rivers.
(iv) Natural disasters: Natural disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes, can also disrupt road transportation by damaging or destroying roads or making them unsafe to use.
(i) Alternative transportation options
(ii) Disaster preparedness
(iii) Traffic management
(iv) Road maintenance and improvement
(i) Traffic management such as carpool lanes.
(ii) Road maintenance and improvement
(i)Availability of water; the area with enough water attracts more people to settle in those areas compared to arid or dry areas. For example, places such as Rungwe in Mbeya which has plenty of water have high growth of settlement.
(ii)Availability of land for agricultural activities; The areas which have fertile land attract people to settle there while infertile land makes people move away from it. For example areas along the Kilimanjaro slope which is fertile due to volcanic soil have high growth of settlement.
(iii)Availability of social services; people prefer to live in areas that have social services such as education, water, and electricity and avoid settling in areas that lack social services. For example, many rural areas in the African continent low settlement growth rate due to lack of social services.
(iv)Government policy; government can affect the growth of settlement by forcing people to settle in a certain area or persuade people to settle in a certain area by supplying social services and other incentives. For example, there has been a rapid growth of settlement in the kinyerezi area on the outskirt of Dar es salaam city due to the government decision to allocate that land to settlement.
(i)agricultural areas are converted into residential or industrial areas.
(ii)Agriculture and allied agricultural activities like fishing, livestock rearing, lumbering, etc.
(iii)Most of rural settlements are semi-clustered or fragmented and small in size.
(iv)people in rural areas daily commute to city areas for work.
(i) Promote economic co-operation.
(ii) Promote trade among member countries.
(iii) Ensure cultural co-operation such as sports, education, etc.
(iv) Contribute to a common fund.
(i)For the purposes of the ECPF, human security refers to the creation of conditions to eliminate pervasive threats to people’s and individual rights, livelihoods, safety and life; the protection of human and democratic rights and the promotion of human development to ensure freedom from fear and freedom from want.
(ii)ECOWAS Member States bear primary responsibility for peace and security. However, as steps are taken under the new ECOWAS Strategic Vision to transform the region from an “ECOWAS of States” into an “ECOWAS of the Peoples”, the tensions between sovereignty and supra-nationality, and between regime security and human security, shall be progressively resolved in favour of supra-nationality and human security respectively.
(iii)To this end, the purpose of the ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework (ECPF) is to serve as a reference for the ECOWAS system and Member States in their efforts to strengthen human security in the region. Achieving this objective requires effective and durable cooperative interventions to prevent violent conflicts within and between States, and to support peace-building in post-conflict environments.
(iv)poverty and unemployment
(i) Industries often require large amounts of raw materials in order to produce their products, and having a reliable source of these materials can be critical to their operation. If an industry is located too far away from its source of raw materials, it may face higher transportation costs and longer lead times, which can make it less competitive. On the other hand, if an industry is located close to its source of raw materials, it can reduce its transportation costs and lead times, which can help it to be more competitive.
(ii) Industries need to be able to sell their products in order to be successful, and being located near to their target market can be critical. If an industry is located too far away from its target market, it may face higher transportation costs and longer lead times, which can make it less competitive. On the other hand, if an industry is located close to its target market, it can reduce its transportation costs and lead times, which can help it to be more competitive.
Plantation Agriculture is the form of Agriculture in which a single person or company owns a big farm and grows a single crop (most often corn, wheat, sunflower, cotton, etc.).
(i)Commercial plantation farming involves huge fields used to grow predominantly cash crops for export and plantations produced large yields of tea, sugarcane, espresso, elastic, cotton, and bananas.
(ii)Commercial and plantation farming require a vast labor and capital and transportation was needed to get these harvests to processing factories.
(iii)Latest plantation farming technology and techniques used. Crops exported and foreign exchange for other portions. Tea, espresso, sugarcane, and elastic are some developed harvests.
(i) Foreign ownership of farms
(ii) Infestation of pests and diseases
(iii) Fluctuation in prices of produce
(iv) Poor transportation network
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